PANalytical MRD

 X-Ray Diffraction

Materials Research Diffractometer (MRD)

The PANalytical Materials Research Diffractometer (MRD) generates x-rays, directs them toward the sample, and the diffracted rays are collected. A key component of diffraction is the angle between the incident and the diffracted beam.

The collected data are widely used for the identification of unknown crystalline materials (e.g. minerals, inorganic compounds). Determination of unknown solids is critical to studies in geology, environmental science, material science, engineering and biology.

To reserve time or request training on this tool, click here or on the image at left to go to the MRD tool page on SUMS.




These are all compositionally SiO2:  Though chemically identical, the atoms are aligned differently and each phase produces a different pattern. A reciprocal space map is a 2D section of the full 3D diffraction pattern and can provide complete  information on both in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters for the analysis of strained films. Texture analysis looks at spatial variations in the diffraction pattern to measure preferential orientation of crystallites within a material.


System Details:

All x-ray diffraction systems have three components. An x-ray source, sample holder stage, and a detector. There are a number of sources with various properties and wavelengths, the MRD has a copper anode with a Kα of 1.54184 Å.

The system has a number of optics allowing for the measurement of solid materials of different shapes and sizes.

Four Circle Goniometer: The stage is what allows for the MRD to perform a number of measurements that other XRDs are not capable of as it can manipulate the sample geometry in real space in dimensions X, Y, Z, Omega, Phi, and Psi, which can allow for the x-ray to be directed at specific orientations at the sample.

  • Sample Size: If your material is a solid that is smaller than 4″ in width and less than 2.5″ in height, then your sample will work with this stage. The sample will need to be calibrated to be properly oriented against the beam in X, Y, Z, and Omega co-ordinates.
  • Capabilities: Allows for measurements of residual stress or for the phase identification of crystalline material for samples that don’t fit in the holders that work with the Reflection-Transmission spinner. Glancing angle experiments for examination of the phases of thin films on top of a substrate can also be performed. Texture measurements can only be performed on this XRD in the MCF.

Downloadable Files:

Instructions for Phase ID

Instructions for Residual Stress

Spreadsheet for Optics Determination

Texture Analysis using M.tex and Matlab